THE DAWN OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN MODERN WORLD

                      ABSTRACT

As name implies artificial intelligence is making the machines like human that can think like human and can do the work like human. Now a days’ in every step of our life we are using artificial intelligence like when we use Google and another shopping sites that sites using artificial intelligence understand that what user prefer. In many companies and industries human workers are replacing by the artificial machines that machines can do more work than human and never tried and there is one time cost of that machines. Now robots are going to develop which looks like human and scientist are trying to put emotions in them. As the artificial is good for us same like it can be dangers’ for us. So in this paper I tried to find out how AI affects our modern life firstly I tried to explain what artificial intelligence is. Than from what artificial intelligence is got or branches of artificial intelligence. Here I also give the fields where AI is used like in transportation, in journalism, in playing game etc and how artificial intelligence work or we can say the searching techniques are used for finding the solution. And at last I tried to find that what inventions are done in this field and what will be future of Artificial intelligence.

                 INTRODUCTION

Artificial intelligence is the established name for the field, but the term “artificial intelligence” is a case of much confusion because artificial intelligence can be defined as the opposite of real intelligence. Artificial intelligence is defined as the concept of solving the problem in such a manner where the complex problem deals with the help of machines in more specific human like fashion or in simple words .It is combination of two terms machine + human being . Intelligence can solve the hard problems easily. It means human intelligence in a machine that can be in robots, computer or any other electronic equipment. In artificial intelligence problems are solved regarding the real world in it human being give commands and problem is solved by the machines. With the invention of digital computers, time consuming and error-prone numerical computations are done with relative ease and accuracy. It then struck to humans “why not seek the help of the computers in the reasoning process”. As all know human brain is more complex, complicated and advanced with respect to intelligence .And than human tried to simulate that intelligence on computers. The basic idea for intelligence in machines came from Turing test .An article was published in mind magazine by Turing in the year of 1950 ,which give birth of a controversial topic ”can machine think”. In modern time artificial is used in many fields’ like- medical diagnosis, stock trading, robot control, law, remote sensing, scientific discovery, finance, online and telephone customer service, heavy industry, transportation etc. there can be as many definition of intelligence as many there are expert each define intelligence in his own way.

MEANING OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Artificial intelligence is combination of two words artificial+ intelligence. Where artificial means not real or natural and by intelligence means the ability to reason, to trigger new thoughts, to perceive and learn intelligence is. Artificial intelligence can be defined that area of computer science that mainly focus on the making on such kind of intelligent machines that work and give reaction same like human beings. It is combination of many activities which includes for designing the artificial in computers that are like- recognizing the speech, Learning, Planning, solving the problem. When any system adapts itself according to situation in any environment is called Intelligent. In other words it can be defined as programming such machines which can think and act with some level of human intelligence is known as artificial intelligence. In 1956, john McCarthy used the term artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence can be defined as efficiently use of limited resources. So artificial intelligence can be defined as making computer programs to solve complex problems same like as human solve the problems. So it is also divided into two parts one is to solving the complex problem by the machine and second is same like human beings. The term artificial intelligence is also used to describe a property of machines or programs: the intelligence that the system demonstrates. Artificial Intelligence is combination of science and engineering for making the machines which behaves in intelligent manner. In it many fields are combined like philosophy, psychology, and computer science.

              BRANCHES OF AI

AI is combination of many fields. It is made by combining the many parts like-
1. Artificial neural network is used in AI
2. AI also use Computer vision
3. Evolutionary algorithms are used in AI
4. Swarm intelligence is also a necessary part of AI
5. For recognizing the pattern, Pattern recognition is used
6. It also offer facilities of Learning from experiences
7. Genetic programming is an important part of AI
8. For processing the image, Image processing and analysis is used
9. For recognizing human language Natural language processing feature is used
10. For finding the optimal solution Global optimization technique is used
11. In AI machine can learn itself and it is called as Machine learning
12.Knowledge representation for representing the knowledge
13. It understands the society very well so called Social intelligence
14. For controlling to the AI Control theory is used
15. Data is inadequate in real world so Uncertain reasoning is done
16. Mathematical tools used in AI

APPLICATIONS OF AI

1 In the Journalism
It is very surprising that Artificial intelligence is used for writing articles and news which used to be written by the professionals and experts. Machines have taken the place of that professional and write articles and news itself without intervention of human being with their own intelligence. It is also used for handling business documents and handling annual reports.
2 For Playing Games
For playing games like chess a master level intelligence is required. So with the help of Artificial intelligence any kind of decision can be taken easily like which move is to taken in chess on what time. For taking moves it uses the brute force computation—which looks at hundreds of thousands of positions.
3 In the Transportation
In the coming future our car and other vehicle will be derived by the computers and there will be no need of actual driver. All the cars will be driverless we all know about it but it can be deeper then it. It will do driverless not only to cars but also to airplanes, trains etc. airplanes will be pilot less. It have both advantages and disadvantages as human work will be reduced and then they will have no job or in other hand it will prevent from accidents as it’s concentration will be good and same at all time. It will also save fuel and from traffic gridlock.
4 In Heuristic Classification
The main characteristics expert system is to collect information from many sources and collect at one place. In heuristic classification many search techniques are used like hill-climbing, best first search etc. it tries to find out the optimal solution of complex problem at low cost and in minimum time. For an example it take decision whether to accept a proposed credit card purchase.  5  For Emergency Services
When we allow handling emergency to A.I then it is more beneficial for us. Because when some emergency come like fire, flood then we can send metal or silicon fire fighters to save people because they have no danger to loss life , machines can also defy higher temperatures and can tolerate smoke easily and can search easily in close-quarters by using lasers and radar where as people may not be able to see. Fire fighting was first field where artificial intelligent machines were used but now this concept is used in many fields like driving ambulances, handling dangerous law enforcement situations, and even cleaning up hazardous leaks or spills are prime examples. Now Navy is using this technology on the water, and some are developing it for use in cities.
6 For Entertainment
We can apply artificial intelligence to the world of music, can make artificial director which see the real world and can generate the stories .we can make the robots which compose music and pitch and robots can create your favorite songs. New technology is also able to restore to life of that stars which are dead like Tupac Shakur and Michael Jackson etc.
7 For providing Services to Customer
Now a day’s, for providing services to the customer artificial intelligence is using in place of human being. When any person do calculation like preparing bill, handling account information he can do calculation error but machine do calculation properly and no mistake is done by the machine. Artificial intelligence also has a component that is natural language processing with the help of which human being can directly communicate with machine in their natural language and can get services directly.

     SEARCHING TECHNIQUES IN AI
In AI for finding the solution of problem searching has to be done because solution is not known in advance. For it AI programs are developed which do the searching process for solution because solution steps are not known beforehand and have to be found out.
For doing searching following steps are required
1. Initial state
2. A set of legal operators
3. Goal state or final state

     INVENTION IN THE FIELD OF AI 
An American scientist John McCarthy invented the term Artificial Intelligence and he has credit of founder of Artificial Intelligence. He was a computer and cognitive scientist and was very popular early development of AI. In the 1940s and 50s, many scientists from diversity fields like mathematics, psychology, engineering, economics and political science started to try to make a artificial mind which work like human in the year of 1940 and 50 and started academic in the year of 1956. For using the semantic net first program of AI was written by Ross Quillian. We can define semantic net as like graph in which nodes represent the concept and arrow is used for providing link between the nodes . A quiz was done in Feb 2011, named with Jeopardy! Quiz show it was an exhibition match. And the competition was in between the IBM’s question answering system named as Watson and two champions named as Brad Rutter and Ken Jennigs and that system beaten them by a great margin.

             THE FUTURE OF AI
It is true that many experts are doing research in the field of Artificial intelligence and in future machines will become more and more powerful. But anything which has advantages there exist disadvantages also so there can be ethical issues related to machines. For example, if any machine is made for very sensitive work and did any mistake than who will be responsible. If an AI program is made for diagnosis purpose and it gives the wrong answer then we cannot claim the doctor for it. So for it policy will have to make. And in future such kind of machines will be developed which will communicate with us same like the human and will be able to guess what should be done in which situation.

                  CONCLUSION
As all know artificial intelligence is intelligence behaviour of machines which is given by the professional. As you all know artificial intelligence have simplified our life in every aspect it can be article writing or game playing or taking any important decision. In any machine many experts mind can be combined which is more powerful than a single expert mind. Many labours work can be done by a single machine and good thing of it is that it never tired. Now such types of robots are going to make which have emotions it will finish the loneliness of the person. But it has another aspect that is can be dangers for us. If we become completely dependent on that machines than it can ruin our life as we do not do any work ourselves and got lazy. And another is that it cannot give the feeling like human. So machines should be used only where there those are actually required.

                 REFERENCES
-Joanna Bryson and Jeremy Wyatt (1997) “Artificial Intelligence” http://www.cs.bath.ac.uk/~jjb/web/whatisai.html
-D. B. Fogel. Review of computational intelligence: Imitating life. Proc. of the IEEE, 83(11), 1995.
Intelligence . Penguin, 2000.
-Oscar Firschein, Martin A. Fischler, 6L.Stephen Coles, Jay M. Tenenbaum, “FORECASTING AND ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ON SOCIETY”